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This essay
will focus at biological positivism and classical Criminology and our understanding
to the issue of street gang. Theories can be said to be tools that help us have
a better understanding not only about ourselves but the world around us.
Theories often give a reflection of the way things are and not the way things
ought to be. Criminological theories are not an exception to this description
of theories as they are also used to help us understand the role of the
criminal justice system and those involved in one way or the other in the system.
In criminology, theories can be used to explain crime orchestrated by a large
social unit as well as explain crime at and individual level which is termed as
the smaller unit. In order to developing a better understanding of criminology,
the effectiveness of the theories should be considered and ensure that indeed
the theories are validly selected, entail a rational and logical point of view,
be as concise and straight forward as possible and cover a wider scope of the
concept of crime.

 

The understanding of crime may
be drawn from a
spread of perspectives for
this reason there are numerous theories that shaped the expertise of what may
be termed as crime or no
longer, some
of those theories include the essential criminology and the biological positivism theories which shaped much of the know-how of what a
criminal offense is and who can
be said to be accountable
for crime, what standards is used to decide crime (Parmelee, 2012). without these theories and other criminology theories these questions could
not be replied, as
a result the need to
talk about and recognize the principles in cooperated by
using these theories. Crime is a extensive idea that wishes to be understood from various angles and factor o views, This  essay therefore analyzes the various interpretations of crime in a bid to apprehend why crime exists in and why humans engage in crime on
the subject of two criminological theories; critical criminology and biological positivism (Anderson, 2015).

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I am going to discuss the similarity
and differences between the two theories. Critical criminology is viewed as a
theoretical viewpoint that attempts to discredit the traditional methods to
criminology and tries dispute the traditional claims of understanding
criminology that created its arguments base on fake principles about crime and expectations.
The critical theory of criminology takes a conflict perspective in
understanding the concept of crime which tries to give an historical
perspective of crime, the origin of crime and nature of crime. According to
critical criminologists, crime was regarded as a form of inequality as a result
of class and social status hence law and the punishment of crime was as a form
of creating of creating inequality. Critical criminology often derives its
explanation of what crime entails from the existence of unequal distribution of
wealth and power and from the existence of various social classes in the
society that leads to divisions and discrimination with regards with social
class. Crime according to this theory is orchestrated by the social classes
that feel that they are superior than the others. The less disadvantaged in the
society are the people who feel the pinch of crime who include women and the
ethnic minorities. Criminology according to this theory is under the control
those in power which suggests that crime can be blamed on the authorities
(Shoemaker, 2010).

Crime according to critical
criminology should therefore be understood from a broader critical perspective.
This requires one to step outside the normal scope of thinking and think of
crime from a broader and wider perspective, taking into consideration various
perspectives and points of view such as the genesis of crime and why criminal
engage in crime so as to understand the concept of crime. It involves taking
into consideration the assumptions that have been left out in defining crime as
well as a closer consideration of what the existing criminal justice system
entails. The understanding of crime according to this theory should be based on
the rational understanding of critical issues in crime such as the laws that
are formulated to govern the scope of criminality and how to change these laws
in order to in cooperate the various perspectives and rational point of views
from which crime ought to be understood (Schmalleger, 2012). This should entail
serious questioning of the of the existing ideologies on crime and
restructuring and implementing new ideas that in cooperate the various critical
and rational concepts of crime.

Biological positivism on the
other hand applied scientific methods to study crime through a study of the
physical characteristics associated with criminals that according to biological
positivists such as Lombroso were inherited and present at birth. The
biological positivists tried to study and relate this characteristics using
scientific methods to try and understand the concept of criminality. Positivism
is a term used to refer to the application of scientific methods to study human
behavior. Biological positivists tried to create a definition of crime based on
individual characteristics and genetic differences which according to the
positivists could distinguish criminals from noncriminal (Adler, Mueller, &
Laufer, 2012).

Cesare Lombroso one of the most
prominent biological positivists believed that biological stimuli and
individual characteristics are responsible for explaining human behavior.
Together with other biological positivists they generated the idea that human
behavior could actually be measured and quantified so as to determine what
makes them engage in crime, there is therefore the need to approach crime and
criminals from a neutral and objective perspective. The idea of the existence
of a consensus in the society with regards to what laws and norms should be
adhered to was not ignored by biological positivists. The positivists believed
that the society consist of the perceived “normal people” who represent the
consensus and then those who deviate from the norms and laws of the society
normally referred as the deviants and basically develop into criminals.
Lombroso and other biological positivists studied skulls of people as well as
criminals in their quest to link individual characteristics to crime…..

Understanding Street Gangs, Riots
and Sexual offenders

Both critical criminologists and
biological positivists agree on the fact that crime should be determined not
only from a single viewpoint of studying criminology but rather the study of
crime should be multi-faceted meaning that crime should be defined from various
perspectives such as the study of the origin of criminology, what makes
individuals engage in crime, the laws and standards used to curb crime as well
as the changes in the criminal justice system. An application of the theories
discussed above to the understanding of the concepts of the existence of street
gangs, riots and sexual offending therefore suggests that we ought to
understand these forms of crimes from various perspectives and not just condemn
these acts but try to understand why individual engage in these forms of crime
as well as analyze what is there in the criminal justice system that can be
done to neutralize and control these forms of crime (Conklin, 2013).

Biological positivists and
critical criminologists also agree on the fact that crime is fueled by those in
power and also the highest in the social class stratification who tend to
oppress those who are under them with the use of the power bestowed to them. An
application both biological positivism and critical criminology therefore in
the understanding of the existence of street gangs, riots and sexual offenders
would justify that indeed that the existence of these forms of crime can be
blamed on the existence of class differences as well as misuse of power by
those in power who use the low class and the less fortunate in the society to
commit crime.

Conclusion

Crime can be significantly
reduced if we approach the various perspectives and causes of crime as well as
develop a clear understanding of what is considered criminal activity and what
is not. A consideration should also be made on the changes in crime trends so
as to control it.

 

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