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The Political System in Tibet Today

The Chinese Communist Party, with the active support of the
military, strictly governs Tibet. The Party rules through branch offices in
each province, autonomous region and autonomous prefecture. Subordinate to the
Party is the government, which carries out policies designed by the Party.
China has established the full panoply of Party and government offices to
administer Tibet as exists in China. In Lhasa alone, there are over 60
departments and committees almost all of which are directly connected to their
national offices in Beijing. Thus, Tibet is “autonomous” in word only; in fact,
the Tibet Autonomous Region has less autonomy than Chinese provinces. The top
T.A.R. post, the Party Secretary, has never been held by a Tibetan.

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China maintains an occupation army in Tibet of at least a
quarter million strong. Military and police are often overwhelmingly present in
Lhasa and elsewhere, though as of February 1992, security in Lhasa is dominated
by undercover and plainclothes police. The military plays a greater role in the
administration of Tibet than any Chinese province, and no Tibetan serves in the
leadership of the military district governing Tibet.

Even though the Party still controls Tibet, its control is
beginning to slip. There is a pervasive disillusionment with, and contempt for,
the Communist Party and the government in Tibet that can even are found among
Party members and government functionaries. Inefficiency and corruption have
consumed some government operations to the extent that they barely function and
are an enormous waste of government funds. During ICT’s one-month tour of
eastern Tibet, it became apparent that the Party’s goals have been drastically
reduced from its once grandiose plans of social, human and economic
transformation to simply holding onto power, taking care of Chinese settlers
and extracting Tibet’s natural resources.

The Party now seems to have little left to offer Tibetans
other than the repression, which keeps Tibetans from mass rebellion. Nobody in
Tibet is talking about how the Party can reform itself, for it has become
something that most Tibetans must just tolerate and avoid. Some Tibetans use
the Party for their own personal and professional advancement and try to
improve conditions for Tibetans from within the system. The late Panchen Lama
succeeded in wresting enough power from the system to improve conditions in a
number of areas. The Panchen Lama was the only Tibetan who the Chinese feared,
unlike current Tibetan leaders such as Ngawang Ngapo Jigme, Mao Rubai and Raidi
who have little power. Recent reports from Lhasa indicate increasing alienation
and disaffection among middle and lower level Tibetan bureaucrats and a
corresponding loss of trust in them by their Chinese superiors.1

India has provided settlement facilities to many Tibetan
refugees after the Dalai Lama and his followers seek asylum in India. Tibetan
in India are called Political refugee. Karnataka has 3 settlements for
Tibetans in Kollegal, Mundgod and Byllakuppe.2

Bangalore is the capital of Karnataka and the Silicon Valley
of India. It has great job potential and a good consumer base. It is obvious
that Tibetans from the 3 settlements and other places would come to Bangalore
for higher studies and for seeking business and employment opportunities. IT
sector is the one profession which give employment opportunity to Tibetan
especially youth.

Information Technology (IT) is a new technology
applied to the creation, storage, selection, transformation and distribution of
information of many kinds. IT, as defined by the Information Technology
Association of America (ITAA), is “the study, design, development,
implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems,
particularly software applications and computer hardware.” It deals with
the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store,
protect, process, transmit and retrieve information, securely. The British
Department of Industry considers IT as science of information handling, particularly
by computers, used to support the communication of knowledge in technical,
economical and social fields. It defines IT as, “The acquisition, processing,
storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical
information by microelectronics based combination of computing and
telecommunication”.3

India
is the world’s largest sourcing destination for the information technology (IT)
industry. The industry employs about 10 million workforces. More importantly,
the industry has led the economic transformation of the country and altered the
perception of India in the global economy. India’s cost competitiveness in
providing IT services, which is approximately 3-4 times cheaper than the US,
continues to be the mainstay of its Unique Selling Proposition (USP) in the
global sourcing market. However, India is also gaining prominence in terms of
intellectual capital with several global IT firms setting up their innovation
centers in India.

 

The
IT industry has also created significant demand in the Indian education sector,
especially for engineering and computer science. The Indian IT and ITeS
industry is divided into four major segments – IT services, Business Process
Management (BPM), software products and engineering services, and hardware.4

 

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Information Technology as a technical support for human
thinking and communication has been evolving over thousand of years. New
developments have been rapid over the last few decades. It is only recently
that the term has been used as a collection term for the whole spectrum of
technologies providing the ways and means to acquire, store, transmit, retrieve
and process information. According to Manfred Kochen, any technology develops
in three stages ìIn the first stage, technology enables us to do things, that
we have been doing, but to do them better, cheaper and faster. In the second
stage, technology provides new capabilities and enables us to do things that we
had not been able to do previously. And in the third stage, technology becomes
an integral part of our activities; it affects the way we do things and changes
our life style. Development in computer and communication technology has
brought a new dimension to the program of information handling. The introduction
of microprocessor and microcomputers has made thing easier. All these
developments facilitate better and quicker services to the user.5

IT
is integral to process execution and management in BPO. BPO stands for
‘Business Process outsourcing’ which is the process through which one company
hands over part of its work to another company, making it responsible for the
design and implementation of the business process under strict guidelines
regarding requirements and specifications from the outsourcing company. The
philosophy behind BPO is specific “Do what you do best and leave everything
else to business process outsourcers”.

 

COMPONENTS
OF BPO

 

In
a world where IT has become the backbone of businesses worldwide, outsourcing
is the process through which one company hands over part of its work to another
company, making it responsible for the design and implementation of the
business process under strict guidelines regarding requirements and
specifications from the outsourcing company. This process is beneficial to both
the outsourcing company and the service provider, as it enables the outsourcer
to reduce costs and increase quality in non core areas of business and utilize
his expertise and competencies to the maximum.

Outsourcing
is made up of two words – ‘out’ and ‘sourcing’. Sourcing refers to the act of
transferring work, responsibilities and decision rights to someone else. It
will be futile for a manager to expel efforts booking a business trip, as it
involves intricacies such as finding flights, booking hotel rooms, reserving a
rental car that, need not be remunerated at the manager’s salary.

The
organization will run at a loss by having a manager conduct the administrative
task rather than sourcing it to an individual who is costing the organization
less in terms of salary. Hence costs, both real (the salary) and opportunity
(the time, attention and effort), are important determinants in the sourcing
decision.6
No organization is self-sufficient, nor does any organization have unlimited
resources. Organizations must source work that can be conducted by others at
lower cost and with greater effectiveness or it will waste valuable resources
in the pursuit of capabilities that can be readily purchased from others.
Sourcing is normally conducted with an external party which is external to the
unit conducting the sourcing, hence the word ‘out’. An organization can
outsource work to another organization or person who is external to it.
Sourcing, as discussed above, is the act of transferring work from one entity
to another. Outsourcing is the act of transferring the work to an external
party.

Organizations
are continuously faced with the decision of whether to expend resources to
create an asset, resource, product or service internally or to buy it from an external
party. If the organization chooses to buy, it is engaging in outsourcing. An
outsourcing initiative calls for the transfer of factors of production, the
resources used to perform the work and the decision rights. The organization
transferring these is referred to as the client, the organization that conducts
the work and makes decisions is the vendor, and the scope of the work is
captured in a project.

 

The
Major Components:

 

The
simple business process outsourcing model consists of 3 components as:

The
client
The
vendor
The
project

 

 The client: A client is the person or organization that would like to
outsource a given project. Normally, this entity is thinking about utilizing
outsourcing as a strategic tool. A client can be an entire organization or a
unit within an organization. If the project being outsourced is the entire IT
department of the organization, we can say that the organization is the client.
However, if we are only outsourcing the payroll functionality of the human
resource department, the client is the human resource department, though
indirectly the entire organization is also the client.

 

The
Vendor: The vendor is
the service provider who will take over and conduct the outsourced work.
Vendors come in many shapes and sizes. For instance, a vendor can be an
external organization, which is most often the case. However, a vendor can also
be a subsidiary of the organization. For instance, Dell Computers has opened
operations in places like Brazil, where they own the outfits. Dell routinely
sends software work to these locations because of the availability of a skilled
workforce and cost savings. Hence, Dell is engaging in what might be called
‘wholly-owned outsourcing’ by outsourcing work to subsidiaries that it owns.

Vendors
can be differentiated based on where they are located. Some vendors are located
onshore or in the same area as the client. Others are located near-shore, as in
the case of potential Canadian companies for US clients. Finally, vendors can
be offshore, as in the case of Indian companies for British clients.

 

 The Project: The third component is the actual work
being outsourced. In the past, the most common form of such work was
manufacturing or labour-intensive projects. Today, however, there is move
towards the outsourcing of more complex forms of work, such as software
development or Research and Development.7

 

BPOs
(Business Process Outsourcing) are typically categorized into back office
outsourcing or non-voice sector and front office outsourcing or voice based
sector. The non-voice process includes data encoding, database development,
market research, handling of credit billing problems, loan processing, account
management etc. The voice sector is often interchangeably referred to as the
‘Call Centre industry’, ‘contact centre industry’ or ‘customer service
industry’ because the service entails interactive communication with the client
or customers. The Call Centers are an important part of the BPO. The Call
Centers are an important part of the BPO. In recent years, the importance of
Call Centers has increased exponentially in the customer care industry.  A call center is central location where all
customer telephone calls of an organization are directed, where trained professionals
handle the customer calls and provide answers to their queries. The Call Centre
employees handle two types of calls – outbound and inbound calls. The inbound
calls are originating from the company’s client and customers, who in phone or
email voice their queries, complaints or other related customer concerns. The
outbound Call Centre on the other hand are those originating from the Call
Centre, which has been contracted by the company to sell or promote certain
products and services. There are also blended call handling, meaning taking
inbound calls while also making outbound calls.

 

THE
BACKGROUND AND HISTORY OF CALL CENTERS

The
call center concept was first used by some organizations as an internal
department to handle customer queries like airline reservation centers and
banks. Over a period of time the call centers were also used to lodge
complaints, provide helpline services and today it is used mostly for sales and
marketing activities.

Since
1990’s the call volumes have grown exponentially and only with the use of
sophisticated call center equipments and technology can such voluminous calls
be handled by call centers. During the 1970’s and 1980’s these equipments,
mostly telecom hardware and computers were prohibitively expensive for smaller
call centers, hence only large MNC’s could afford to put up their own call
centers. During the early 1990’s, these equipments have become very affordable
to even smaller organizations due to the boom in telecom and IT infrastructure
sector globally. This opened up avenues in the areas of outsourcing of these
call centers by MNC’s to third party.

The
next wave of outsourcing of call center jobs came during late 1990’s and early
2000, when these MNC organizations began looking at cheaper destinations in
developing economy like India, South Africa and Far East for setting up their
call centers. This gave rise to the Global Call Center Outsourcing Industry. A
sunrise industry, which promised jobs to millions of educated unemployed youth
in developing countries and millions of dollars as savings to MNC organizations
in the developed nations.

 

HISTORY OF CALL-CENTER IN INDIA

Call center is a rapid
growth trend set in the Indian economy since 1990, due to the LPG
(Liberalization – Privatization – Globalization) policies of the Indian
Government to attract foreign investments in all sectors of the Indian economy.
Most of the big Fortune 500 organizations have set up their own BPO’s in India
through their subsidiary organization for outsourcing back office work. This
was evident by General Electric’s strategy to setup its call center in Gurgaon
near Delhi during 1995. Other organizations like Swissair, British Airways, etc
followed suit in the coming years.

Post 2000 saw hordes of Indian organizations
bandwagon the BPO space. This was partly due to the US outsourcing deals and
partly due to the initiatives of Venture Capitalist encouraging young
entrepreneurs in this space. This was evident in the success of young bred
organizations like Spectra mind. 8

After referring all the references above,
researcher understood the problems faced by BPO employee and thus researcher
wanted to do this research to study and understand the problems faced by
Tibetan youth working in IT sector (BPO) such as social, psychological and
physical health problems.  There are huge
numbers of Tibetan youth in Bangalore who seek profession in this sector which
help financial.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 http://tibetoffice.org/tibet-info/invasion-after

2 http://tibetoffice.org/tibet-info/invasion-after

3http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/3814/14/14_chapter%204.pdf

4https://www.ibef.org/industry/information-technology-india.aspx

5http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/3814/14/14_chapter%204.pdf

6 http://www.dismalworld.com/outsourcing-industry-of-india/

7 http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/6058/13/13_chapter%202.pdf

8 http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/5435/7/07_chapter%202.pdf

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