Abstract — In recent years
information technology has grown very rapidly. In the context of GIS, free/open
source concept and three-dimensional implementation have also increasingly
developed in recent years. The usage of these types of softwares is rapidly
growing, so this paper describes the wide range of applications of GIS. It
describes the major characteristics of GIS, as well as the reasons for the
application of GIS in the analysis, modelling and display characteristics. The
paper mentions some issues considering the application of geoinformation
technologies in mapping and managing of forest inventory, flood protection,
tourism and urban planning.
Klju?ne re?i —application,
components, GIS, maps
eoinformation technologies are a
new group of tools, methods, instruments and systems developed in recent decade
to improve acquisition, processing, display and use of geoinformation. Examples
of such tools are GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, GIS (Geographical
Information System) tools, algorithms for spatial data modelling, remote
sensing techniques, geostatistical tools etc 1.
Geographical information system
(GIS) technologies have been widely applied at all scientific fields and
practical activities 2-3.
GIS can be implemented as a
comprehensive, multipurpose system (e.g. GRASS, ArcGIS), as a specialized,
application oriented tool (e.g. GeoServer), or as a subsystem of a larger
software package supporting handling of geospatial data needed in its
applications (e.g. hydrologic modelling system, geostatistical analysis
software, or a real estate services Web site). The multipurpose systems are
often built from smaller components or modules which can be used independently
in application oriented systems 4. According to 5, GIS represents a set of
related objects and activities that serve with their mutual relations the
general purpose which is decision making of spatial activities. It enables
storage, processing, analysis, modelling and display of spatial data.
II. MAIN GIS COMPONENTS
can be divided into five components: people, data, hardware, software, and
methods (procedures), as showed in Figure 1. All of these components need to be
in balance for the system to be successful. No one part can run without the
other URL 1.
The people are the
component who actually makes the GIS work. They include a plethora of positions
including GIS managers, database administrators, application specialists,
systems analysts, and programmers. They are responsible for maintenance of the
geographic database and provide technical support. People also need to be
educated to make decisions on what type of system to use. Procedures include how the data will be retrieved,
input into the system, stored, managed, transformed, analyzed, and finally
presented in a final output. The procedures are the steps taken to answer the
question that needs to be resolved. The ability of a GIS to perform spatial
analysis and answer these questions is what differentiates this type of system
from any other information system.
Figure 1. GIS components
Hardware consists of the
technical equipment needed to run a GIS including a computer system with enough
power to run the software, enough memory to store large amounts of data, and
input and output devices such as scanners, digitizers, GPS data loggers, media
disks, and printers. There are many different GIS software packages available today. All packages must be capable
of data input, storage, management, transformation, analysis, and output, but
the appearance, methods, resources, and ease of use of the various systems may
be very different. Today’s software packages are capable of allowing both
graphical and descriptive data to be stored in a single database, known as the
object-relational model. Before this innovation, the geo-relational model was
used. In this model, graphical and descriptive data sets were handled
separately. The modern packages usually come with a set of tools that can be
customized to the users needs. Perhaps the most time consuming and costly
aspect of initiating a GIS is creating a database.
There are several things to consider before acquiring geographic data. It is
crucial to check the quality of the data before obtaining it. Errors in the
data set can add many unpleasant and costly hours to implement GIS and the
results and conclusions of the GIS analysis most likely will be wrong URL 1.
III. GIS IN FOREST INVENTORY
GIS is a good tool for forest
management because it answers the following questions that help in forest
management activities: what’s the location of forest, its location relative to
nearby places, how much has it changed, what spatial patterns exist. The Forest
Atlas is a dynamic tool that helps decision makers in the region to achieve
sustainable management of forest resources through strengthened land use
planning and monitoring. Through a combination of interactive mapping
applications, posters, analytical reports, trainings, and outreach, the Atlases
provide users with timely, accurate, and synchronized information about land
use allocation within national forest estates. The observatory of forests and
integration with GIS systems aims to support improved management of natural resources
and sustainable development by producing reliable forestcover change
information. With forest management becoming increasingly complex, due to
greater environmental and social involvement and pressures, GIS is likely to
play an increasingly central role 6. Application of GIS in forest
inventory is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. GIS in
forest inventory 6
IV. GIS IN FLOOD PROTECTION
With global warming and extensive
infrastructure development close to rivers, the impacts of flooding events have
greatly increased over recent years. To support flood management, early
prediction is very useful. It is possible to develop a decision support system
for flood prediction and monitoring that integrates GIS and hydrological
modelling with additional sensors and users’ observations. Hydrological
modelling considers a wide range of information that affect flooding such as
snow conditions, temperatures, precipitation patterns, water levels and stream
to generate flood predictions. The predicted water levels for the next 24 and
48 hours can be displayed via dynamic web pages, and overlaid with maps of the
transportation network, property boundaries, municipal infrastructure and water
depth contour lines. This combination of technology and software can provide
good flood prediction precision and strong support to the public evacuation if
flood events happen. The basic inputs for automated floodplain delineation are
the DTM and the water levels at the cross sections obtained from the water
gauges. The floodplain depth datasets are generated by computing the elevation
difference between the water surface TIN and the ground surface DTM data. Based
on flood depth data, the floodplain extent and flood depth contour maps can be
generated. The Web-GIS interface is designed to calculate and display the
spatial extent of predicted flood plain (see Figure 3), enabling the
visualization of the transportation network, property boundaries, municipal
infrastructure, flood polygons and water depth contour lines 7.
Figure 3. Flood risk
V. GIS IN TOURISM
Both tourism and
IT increasingly provide strategic opportunities and powerful tools for economic
growth, redistribution of wealth and development of equity around the globe.
GIS technology offers great opportunities for the development of modern tourism
applications using maps. This technology integrates common database operations
such as query with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits
offered by maps. GIS is used for bringing the georeferenced data (spatial and
non-spatial) of geographic location Zlatibor and Zlatar into digital maps. Each
object is assigned to a thematic layer. Each layer combines related objects
like roads, building, protected areas or watercourses (Figure 4). GIS can be
used in three types of applications such as inventory, analysis and evaluation
of plan based on tourism development 8.
Figure 4. Maps with hotels at Zlatibor and
Zlatar, tourist areas and main attractions 8
VI. GIS IN URBAN PLANNING
planning involves many functions, scales, sectors, and stages. In general, the
functions of urban planning can be classified into general administration,
development control, plan making, and strategic planning. Different functions,
scales, sectors, and stages of urban planning make different uses of GIS. The
use of the data management, visualisation, spatial analysis, and modelling
components of GIS varies according to different functions of urban planning.
GIS can help to store, manipulate, and analyse physical, social, and economic
data of a city. Planners can then use the spatial query and mapping functions
of GIS to analyse the existing situation in the city. Through map overlay
analysis, GIS can help to identify areas of conflict of land development with
the environment by overlaying existing land development on land suitability
maps. A key function of planning is the projection of future population and
economic growth. GIS can be used for prediction and projection. Spatial
modelling of spatial distributions makes it possible to estimate the widest
range of impacts of existing trends of population, and of economic and
environmental change. Using socioeconomic and environmental data stored in GIS,
environmental planning models have been developed to identify areas of
environmental concern and development. GIS can also be used to model different
development scenarios. It can show the modelling results in graphic form,
making them easy to communicate with the decision-makers 9.
Most people think GIS is
only about “making maps”. But governments, businesses and people harness the
power of GIS because of the insights of spatial analysis. Before GIS,
cartographers mapped out the land using paper maps. Over the years, people have
witnessed a gradual shift away from paper maps. Instead, users build digital
maps with computer-based spatial data.
Some of the largest problems
of our planet are best understood spatially. For example, climate change,
natural disasters and population dynamics are all geographic in nature. So, how
to solve such problems in GIS? The answer is through spatial analysis which
understands relationships between spatial and attribute data.
GIS is very important tool
when it comes to natural hazards management and development planning. They can
improve the quality and power of analysis of natural hazard assessments, guide
development activities, and assist planners in the selection of mitigation
measures and in the implementation of emergency preparedness and response
Figure 5. Urban green space
system planning map of Nanchang in 2020. 10
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URL 1 https://www.jmu.edu/cisr/research/sic/topics.htm
URL 2 http://www.rst2.org/ties/GENTOOLS/comp_gis.html
Tehni?kih Nauka, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Trg Dositeja Obradovi?a 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Srbija (telefon: 381-64
262 72 87; e?mail: [email protected]).
Davidovi?, Fakultet Tehni?kih Nauka, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Trg Dositeja Obradovi?a 6, 21000 Novi Sad,
Srbija (telefon: 381-65 570 71 04; e?mail: [email protected]):