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Prison,many people have different views on the purpose of imprisonment or whether its purpose contributes effectively to todays society. Throughout the years of law and order being present,prison is considered to be one of the main reasons that keeps the population functioning together. The general population has always required imprisonment as a means of protecting the innocent half of the population away from those who have caused harm or who appose a threat to them. This way keeping the 
criminals away from the general population gives time for them in the hope that they will rehabilitate and can eventually become a functioning member to society, again. Keeping all of the criminals together in a small confined space makes it easier for them to be controlled and be kept under surveillance for a longer period of time but of course this can lead to the making of more powerful criminals with more numbers. But the consequence of being imprisoned is in which prisoners forcibly confined and denied variety of rights such as their freedom under the authority of the state for a specified period of time after being convicted after trial.Prison is a place where dignity, privacy and control are given up to guards and prison administrators.The term prison or penitentiary is often used to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, while the term jail is more often used to describe institutions focused on confining people for shorter periods of time.
It is relatively new concept of using imprisonment as a means of punishment and rehabilitation. For example, in the 16th and 17th centuries in the UK, sentences handed down for many crimes was mostly the death penalty. The death penalty (also known as ‘capital punishment’) is a way of punishing convicted criminals by execution in the hope to keep society more safe with less convicted criminals operating into everyday society. At this time, prison was used mainly as a place were criminals were to be held until they awaited for trial and if found guilty, then was executed. However it wasn’t until the late eighteenth century in England, it was unusual to imprison guilty people for long terms. Although the death penalty did exist it was only used as a punishment for very serious crimes.
Historically prisons were used to imprison for a number of reasons,most commonly used to jail criminals, but also was used in the past for unfair punishment.They have been used to lock away political dissidents, the mentally ill, prisoners of war and even people who couldn’t pay their debts. For example,The prison camps of the American Civil War were notorious in both the North and South for being unsanitary places with horrendous living conditions. Not all prisons were deemed to be a suitable living standard for any human many years ago.There were many reports of guards treating the prisoners with emotional and physical abuse daily.In old Victorian prisons (1837- 1901) prisoners were stripped naked,made to have a bath and had hair was cropped to the scalp,after arriving to the prison not for the purpose of cleaning them but to humiliate them. A convicted criminal’s diet in a Victorian prison was usually restricted of one pound of bread a day and for dinner, two pounds of potatoes or half a pound of boiled rice. No meats or nutritious foods such as fruits were supplied leading to many illnesses and deaths among the prisoners. Because of the damp and cold conditions in the prisoners cells diseases such as TB(Tuberculosis),the measles, typhoid and cholera were very easily spread among the prisoners and caused many deaths especially common with young prisoners as there wasn’t a separate prison for children. It was a shared belief in society at the time that we all pay for our sins at sometime by God. Guards and officials took it upon themselves to ‘carry out God’s work’ give the sinners their comeuppance bearing in mind most prisoners at time were imprisoned without trial.Prisoners were beaten and tortured repeatedly,sometimes even executed without consent of officials or sentenced to death after trial. 
As a way of rehabilitation back into society, prisoners were forced to work hard manual labour in poor working conditions.The early Victorian prison system had two main separate extreme approaches to the rehabilitation of prisoners.This included the ‘Separate’ and the ‘Silent’ systems. The Separate system consisted of isolating people in closed cells, with virtually no human contact or daylight for all or most of their sentence. This is called ‘solitary confinement’ although this practice is used today it was nowhere as extreme as the Victorian separate system. Under the Silent system, prisoners were confined to their cells at night and was not allowed to interact with other prisoners while at work or exercise. Guards maintained their silence throughout. Both systems proved small benefits but caused more controversy within the general public. After prisoners were released, they returned to their life of crime and officials were criticised for being too optimistic in their ability to change human behaviour. In 1842 ‘The Times Newspaper’ described the system as ‘this maniac-making system’ as many prisoners suffered from mental illnesses post-imprisonment and was unable to regenerate back into society.These systems also proved to be too expensive to run as prisoners required separate cells. Ultimately these rules were relaxed in the 1920s and were then abolished in the 1950s.
A Victorian prison sounds like something i wouldn’t want want to visit but surprisingly there are prisons today that would be this harsh of a punishment even in 2017. There are many notorious prisons around the world today where convinced prisoners have an higher authority over prison staff and where law and order does not exist even in a prison.The Black Dolphin prison,is a correctional facility in Sol-Iletsk, Orenburg Russia.Russia’s oldest prison, to a Siberian prison camp where temperatures linger at 50 below.It is deemed to be one of the most notorious prisons in Russia.It is the living place of Russia’s most brutal criminals. It holds roughly 700 of Russia’s most dangerous killers but combined these criminals have killed almost 3500 people with an average of 5 murders per inmate.It is the home of terrorists,cannibals,pedophiles and serial killers but the main crime committed by the prisoners is murder.But the Black Dolphin has become known notorious for its brutal techniques to keep its prison population under control, keeping its arrivals blindfolded, cuffed and held doubled over as they walk through the corridors. Prisoners are not even allowed to rest or sit down during waking hours, surviving on soup and bread.These waking hours start at 6:00 in the morning and can last up to more then 16 hours. With each cell having its own recording systems around the clock, with light and motion detectors and every 15 mintues guards go through the cells,noting will let slip in the prison of Black Dolphin. According to the lieutenant the only way to escape is ‘dying’.
Another example of one of the worlds toughest prisons is Danli in Honduras in South America. Honduras known to be the murder capital in the world with 400 people killed every month with many victims of turf war drug trafficking to North America.Home to over 700 inmates serving time for murder and rape.With three times more prisoners then its built for and not enough funding authorities in this prison have decided on a very risky approach. They’ve armed the toughest prisoners with weapons therefore giving them the power to police themselves and the criminals enforce the rules known as co-ordinaters .But surprisingly this potentially explosive system works.The government spends only 43 pence per day to feed each inmate. There is no surveillance no electronic security available inside the prison walls.Most prisoner in Danli are housed in a complex surrounded by 5 meter walls.Locked inside the Bartolinas,a maze of cramped,over crowded cells mattresses are sold for $135 if they are available,if not inmates sleep on the floor.If you have family you can ask them to bring a small bucket for you to shower cold outside.Inmates eat whatever they can find even rats.Some prisoners are put into a separate cell for their own protection from other prisoners their cell is known as ‘Cell 33’.Most of its occupants are ex gang members or sex offenders.A big problem with in the jail is drugs majariuna,cocaine and heroin are all easy and accessible drugs to get within the jail. 
In Ireland there are approximately 4,000 people in custody at the one time.Theres 14 prisons and places of detention used to accommodate prisoners.Eleven are “closed” institutions with both internal and perimeter security, one is a semi-open place of detention which differs in that it has a reduced level of internal security. There are a two more institutions classed as open centres and there is a lesser emphasis on security in these centres consistent with their aim of promoting the reintegration of prisoners into the community.The place that a convicted criminal will serve their sentence in depends on a number of different factors relating to their security status, e.g. nature of the offence, length of time served, behaviour while in custody and any previous offending records or age of the convicted criminal.In addition to this, the Prison Service will take into consideration other measures such as distance to the family home and the various rehabilitative programmes available in the different institutions before decisions are made on the most suitable location. The safety of prisoners is also an important consideration and every effort is made to place prisoners in accommodation where they will be protected from any risk of harm.
Since the Republic was granted their independence, the Republic of Ireland has enjoyed an extremely low rate of imprisonment in comparison with the rate when it was part of the United Kingdom.However, there has been considerable growth in its prison population recently.Irish prisons were some of the first to make a photographic record of inmates known as ‘mugshots’ now before they were legally required to do so under the Habitual Criminals Act of 1869..In Ireland,the earliest known prisoner mugshots were taken in August 1857 in Mountjoy Jail. Other Irish prisons then followed suit: Londonderry in 1865, Enniskillen in 1866 and Belfast in 1868.In October 2011, online database provider FindMyPast.ie launched the Irish Prison Registers collection. The collection of data showed that registers have survived from ‘bridewells’, which were cell blocks of varying sizes attached to local police stations or courthouses, to the county or national prisons, and to the specialised ‘drying out’ Prisons for Inebriates. The collection is made up of a total of 44 registers from 20 of the 26 counties in todays modern-day Ireland: Clare (1), Cork (15), Dublin (6), Galway (2), Kerry (1), Kildare (2), Kilkenny (1), Laois (2), Lietrim (1), Limerick (1), Longford (1), Louth (1), Mayo (1), Meath (1), Offaly (1), Sligo (1), Tipperary (2), Waterford (1), Wexford (2), Wicklow (1).
The information noted in the registers varied over time and according to the type of detention facility. Bridewells typically recording less information. However county courts recorded less information, the information thats recorded are as follows:Name,Address, Place of birth,Occupation, Religion,Level  of Education,Age, Physical Description,Name and address of next of kin,Crime committed (including the name and address of any victim) and Sentence or discharge, or date and place of committal. An Example of entries found in the Irish prison registers collection is for stealing potatoes: John Lane, aged just 10 years, was found guilty of stealing potatoes. He was sentenced to ten days hard labour in August 1849.For prostitution: 36-year-old Julia Tobin, aka Julia Ryan, charged with Importuning passers-by for prostitution in December 1870. This was her 14th arrest. She was sentenced to three months imprisonment or a fine of £2 1shilling. Nothing further is recorded.The Irish prison registers show that the level of incaration leapt by nearly 15% in 1849. Just over 100,000 people went through the prison system in that one year alone as those worst affected by the Irish Famine(1845) people sought refuge within prison.They would be sheltered and fed by government more then what they would have outside in the free world. Often the food was better than in the workhouse, so people deliberately set out to be arrested.The stereotype of the drunken Irish is borne out by the Irish prison registers. Drunkeness is the most common crime reported across the 130 years covered by the online collection and accounts for 25% of all incarcerations.The top five offences that were recorded were:Drunkeness – 25%,Theft – 16%,Assault – 12%,Vagrancy – 8% and Rioting – 4%.Today, Garda/CSO figures show a total of 243,968 criminal offences were recorded last year – representing an average of 667 crimes every day. (excluding road traffic offences from these figures).Although some people would have been a victim of more than one crime, the statistics indicate that 5.3% of the population, or one in every 18 citizens, was directly affected by crime last year.Theft remains the most common category of offence accounting for 31.4% of all crime last year followed by public order offences (17.9%), criminal damage (13.4%), burglaries (11.4%) and drug offences (6.8%).We can see today’s crime is very different from the recorded crime in the times of the famine.
The Irish Constitution recognises and declares that people living in Ireland have certain fundamental and personal rights.And these right may be derived or implied from the Constitution. The Courts decide what the Constitution means in the rights already written.Although these rights are not absolute – they can be limited and restricted by the Oireachtas on the grounds, for example, of the common good of the irish people.Ireland has agreed to follow the terms of 4 international treaties which lay out standards for the treatment of prisoners.These are:European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR),European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR),Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT).There is also the Council of Europe’s European Prison Rules which give guidance on standards for prisons,However these this is only guidelines prisons are not required to follow any guidance given by the Council of Europe’s European Prison Rules.
The following is an overview of how prison affects the daily life and associated rights of an individual.You do not have a right to temporary release or conjugal visits.If you are married, you have a right to communicate with your spouse, but without privacy. You also have a right to take some part in the education of your children.You have a right to be registered in the political constituency where you would normally live if you were not in prison. However, you have no right to be given physical access to a ballot box by temporary release.If you are on  parole or temporary release at the time of an election, you are free to vote where you are registered.Although The Electoral (Amendment) Act 2006 provides procedures that enable prisoners to vote by post.If you are in prison, you can register for a postal vote in the area that you would otherwise be living in.If you are already registered to vote in that area and wish to be able to vote from prison then you should fill out a form called Form RFG these applications are then sent to the local authorities.You have a right to communicate with other prisoners while you are working or at recreation. However, you must communicate in an orderly way and you cannot interrupt the other prisoners’ work and the governor has the right to take this right in the interest of the prison.You have a very limited right to privacy. An example of privacy you would have, you may not to be stripped, searched or bathed in the presence of another prisoner. In addition, you have the right to be exposed to the public view as little as possible while being removed from or to prison.In relation to drug testing or searches you may be searched and you may only be searched by officers of the same sex.The search also must be done with due regard to your decency and self-respect and in as appropriate a manner as possible.The search shouldn’t damage your self dignity in any way.Or at no point should you be left alone naked.And the search can only be carried out for a genuine purpose, for example, to find forbidden items. In prison you don’t  have the right to keep money in the prison.You are not allowed to keep all the money and effects you brought into the prison or were sent to the prison for your use.You have a limited right to bodily integrity. An example of this is, a prisoner’s hair cannot be cut without their consent unless the prison doctor considers it as necessary on health grounds.You do have a right to practise your religion. The prison will provide for basic religious needs but you do not have a right to any special requirements.And the prison will allow a religious instructor visit you if wanted.While in prison, you must be given a healthy, well balanced and reasonably varied diet.This isn’t just a right but also a requirement of all prisoners to do so.The prison medical officer can also approve a change of diet if nessacary. All prisoners have a right to education while you are in prison. 
While in prison, the prison is expect to provide prisoners with medical, dental, psychiatric and psychological care.Section 35 of the Prisons Act 2007 came into effect in May 2007 and this provides a medical service for the prison.Medical doctors provide medical services in all prisons. They must pay particular attention to prisoners with psychiatric problems.Professionally qualified nurses will assist the prison doctors and the nurses provide 24-hour cover in closed prisons.If a prisoner needs hospital treatment, they will be transferred to outside hospitals with guards, after a recommendation by the prison doctor. Prisoners will also be provided with Psychology service if needed.The main function of the Psychology Service is to provide prisoners with on-going therapy and supportive counselling.This aims to increase awareness of problems and help to develop alternative strategies for dealing with criminal behaviour.The Psychology Service also provides a variety of programmes for sex offenders and a cognitive skills course for prisoners for when they finish their sentence and leave the prison back into society.Dental treatment is provided on a similar basis to that available in the general community under the Medical Card scheme. 

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