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Movable
devices such as mobile phones, laptops etc., have need of energy and power
but simultaneously the functioning charging lifetime of
these power sources is not being improved in agreement with the user demand. In the previous era, the use of liquefied fuels in devices
has been a substitute and fascinating field of research 1, 2. Primarily, wide efforts
have been made on direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs)
owing to their activity, high energy density, and
easy accessibility of fuel by slight contaminant emissions and efficient energy conversion 3. Though, the commercial use of DMFCs is restricted because of certain serious complications such as (i) process at controlled concentration,
(ii) deprived kinetics owing to catalyst poisoning through carbon
intermediates produces in methanol oxidation, causing
in reduced fuel performance (iii) at room temperature
activity is very low 4-6, (iv)
methanol crossover, which confines the usage of high methanol
concentrations, normally less than 2 M 7
and lastly (v) the expensive Pt (Pt is precise catalyst
for the DMFCs). To overcome all of above
mentioned problems, DFAFCs have attained attention in current time. Formic
acid is  comparatively less poisonous than other liquid fuels and
it has very high open
circuit potential (1.450 V) theoretically than direct formic acid fuel
cells (1.190 V) and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (1.229 V) 8. Moreover, Formic acid
also has a lower crossover flux as compared to methanol and ethanol over nafion,
or the proton exchange membrane, because of the
repulsion existing by the membrane terminal
groups. Therefore it accelerates proton transport in the
anodic part of the fuel cell which leads
to high energy conversion 9. Although, the energy density of formic acid is 2086 WhL-1 which is smaller as compared
to methanol (4690 WhL-1), it transmits additional energy per unit
volume as compared to methanol owing to the fact that concentrated formic acid (20 M or 70 wt %) can be used as a fuel comparatively low
concentration of methanol (2 M) 10. The further main benefit of formic acid to use as a fuel is its creation
from environmental leftover by the biomass conversion
procedures 11. 

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