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In
conclusion we can see that both genetic and environmental conditions can affect
the behaviour and development of an individual. From the case study Jed’s
development of heart disease was due to his unhealthy lifestyle and Julian’s
was due to genetic factors as his father had heart problems. Both sides of this
story supports the nature/nurture debate and the outcome of a person can be
caused by both factors not just one or the other. We can clearly state that the
nature/ nurture debate is a debate discussing the impact of an individual’s
innate qualities (nature) versus the people’s personal experiences to have an
impact on their way of behaviour and personal traits. It is clearly shown that
both genetic and environmental factors play a big role in the development of a
person. The Maturation theory is probably considered as the most effective
theory because he believed the biological factors determined the behaviour of
the child yet the characteristics of a child is developed later on in life.

Jed and
Julian are two very different individuals with different genetic backgrounds
(nature) and different lifestyles (nurture) who both have heart problems.

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However in Julian’s
case he could tell their maybe be a risk of heart disease due to family history
and fatalities at a young age. When Julian was a young boy his fathered died
from a heart attack at age 38. To prevent this risk Julian didn’t smoke, ate
healthily and ran marathons and cycled. He had a very good physique as a result
from it. Julian had a high a very high standard of living because he had a good
job working in the Chartered Accountants firm and they even planned family
holidays which included skiing. Suddenly Julian had chest pains when playing
squash. The CCU found out it was a blocked coronary artery causing a slow and
irregular heartbeat. This proves that his heart condition was not because of
his way of living and lifestyle, in fact it was due to heredity factors which
supports the nature side of the debate. This was solely due to biological
programming.

From the case
study of Jed and Julian they are both submitted to the Coronary Care Unit who are
the same age. Firstly Jed had been taken too CCU with severe chest pain. He had
a diagnosis of a heart attack. A heart attack is when the blood to the heart is
suddenly blocked, usually by a blood clot. This was due to his lifestyle and
way of living because he never exercised and spent his spare time drinking at
pubs and betting on horses. He had money problems because his work hours
declined when driving a truck and he had to borrow money and had difficulty
meeting monthly payments. This caused him and his wife to have relationship
problems and it led him to smoke, drink and gamble even more.
This resulted in him collapsing with chest pain due to his surroundings. Jed’s
side of the story relates to the nurture side of this debate.

Giselle
believed that in the nurture side of this debate, environment also play a very
important role in the development of a person. A suitable environment helps to
ensure the child gains a normal way of life. In contrast the children will
develop on what their genetics tell the person to do. In Gisell Institute
Philosophy he believed that children should be based in their educational
classes based on their development rather than chronological age. Children’s
ability to read is a result from their maturity level. He produced a test to
figure out if children were developing normally or mental, linguistic and
social growth. Through measuring more than IQ it was the first generation of
mental tests.

In contrast
to the maturation theory, John locke came up with the blank slate theory and he
believes that people learn from the environment. He stated that people are born
with an empty mind and have no knowledge on their actions and behaviour. The
blank slate is then written on as the year’s progress as we live and
experience.

For example
if your father had heart problems, you may also have heart problems. An example
of a celebrity who had biological problems was Angelina Jolie. Her mother had
previously battled breast cancer for her whole life and died at the age of 54.
The doctors told her she had an 87% risk of breast cancer, therefore she
underwent surgery to get both or her breasts removed and her chances of
developing cancer has dropped from 87% to 5%.

The
maturation theory supports the nature side of the debate. It is based on
natural characteristics but nurture influences the development of the natural
characteristics. Therefore it can be seen as the middle road theory. This was
created by Arnold Gesell (1880-1961). He believed that the development of
childhood and adolescence is due to biological and genetic information. He
created the word ‘norms’ where the biological and genetic factors determine the
behaviour of the individual. He stated that the characteristics of a child at
birth are emerged later on in life known as maturation. It highlights that the
development of a child is thought to be a developing process for example the
children’s ability to speak is due to an inbuilt genetic process and when
children are exposed to sounds and signs. Biological problems are to do with
your genetics and it is due to nature not nurture.

The nurture
side of this debate believes that the way we behave is due to our surroundings
and how we were brought up. It emphasizes that our behaviour changes due to
education, parenting such as our parent’s interests and expectations. Poor diet
and housing can also affect the way we are brought up. For example from the
listverse.com website I researched that feral children exist in this world who
are children who have lived from human contact. A girl named Oxana Malay who
lived in Ukraine spent most of her life with dogs. She started to pick up dog
like habits and was able to growl, bark and sniff like a dog. This change of
behaviour was due to her environmental surroundings as she lived in a place of poverty
and through social neglect as her parents didn’t care for her. This was not
from genetic factors.

Nature
refers to individuals innate qualities. Nature in relation to individual
development believes we were born the way we are through inherited genes and it
we stay the same we were born for example our eye colour was from nature and
not from the environment (nurture). It suggests all behaviour is determined by
hereditary factors. We were born the way we are due to inheriting
characteristics from our parents. Genes provide the blueprint for all
behaviours.  Some say it’s a development
process as children’s thoughts and behaviour change at different age-related
stages.

The
nature/nurture debate is the influence of an individual’s innate/biological
attributes. It is a scientific, cultural, philosophical debate about whether
our personality and behaviour is caused by either nature or nurture. It is very
controversial and has many conflicts and arguments between both sides. In the
nature side they believe we were born the way we are and our own behaviour was
already determined. They believe the gene encoded in each cell determines our
physical traits such as eye and hair colour. It is also said that our
personality and likes and dislikes was already coded in our DNA. However the
nurture side says there are other factors that influence the way we develop
such as the environment we live in and our surroundings or how we are raised by
our parents, teachers or friends. All these factors can affect our personality
and behaviour. Sir Francis Galton marked the beginning of the nature/nurture
debate. He believes that it is the people’s act of behaviour is a combination
of inherited tendencies known as nature or their life experiences known as
nurture. 

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