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In the literature review section of
the dissertation focus was mainly aimed at the carrying out valid research on
areas such as an introduction into agile, agile background, scrum, Kanban,
project management and PMBOK methodology. The research was carried out using
methods such as evaluation of books, research papers, websites and various
other sources of information that could give a viable and reliable account of
the agile and the other related areas. In the period of research care was given
to not relating to information from unreliable sources so that a true
understanding could be given. 

 

2.2 Introduction to Agile:
Section ok expand more if can find more material

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The use of Agile is a set of values
or principles. There are twelve known agile principles behind the agile
manifesto. These principles are more commonly known as the twelve agile
principles. These principles are a set of guideline concepts that a project
manager should try and implement when carrying out work on an agile project.
The project manager uses these agile principles as a guide to see if team
members are capable of being agile during the duration of the project. The
twelve agile principles are as follows:

·        
The main priority of implementing agile is to satisfy
the customer through continuous and early delivery of valuable software.

·        
 Changes
from the customer in requirements are welcome even if they are late on in the
development. The agile processes can harnesses change to give the customers
competitive advantage.

·        
Being able to deliver working software frequently
with a preference to the shorter timescale.

·        
The customer and developers must work together
as team daily throughout the project in an effort to achieve the customers the
final goal or milestone set out in the project.

·        
Agile project managers should build projects
around motivated individuals. They should give them an environment where they
have support they need, and trust them to reach the goals and milestones.

·        
The best and most efficient way of transferring
information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation, the
agile principles state that face to face communication is better than sending
an email.

·        
In agile working software is how success and
progress are measured in the project goals and milestones.

·        
The agile processes should give the stakeholders
sustainable development. Such as sponsors, developers, and users should be able
to maintain a constant pace indefinitely throughout the project.

·        
The agile process gives attention to good
technology and good design and this enhances agility.

·        
Simplicity — the art of maximizing the amount of
work not done — is essential.

·        
The best team members such as architectures,
requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.

·        
At regular intervals, the team reflects on how
to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behaviour accordingly.
This can be done by have daily sprint meetings this is a tool from the agile
methodology. (agilealliance, 2017)

 

Some researchers say that agile is
an iterative method of managing product development projects in a highly
flexible and interactive manner. The over extent of focus on agile leads to
delivery of high quality of a product. Agile give the optimal business value
delivered by continuous use of technology and the business. If agile is to be successful
in industry, then it requires greater vision in projects and also understanding
of the benefits that agile brings to a project and a business. Project managers
that excel at agile normally have a strong desire to see the agile project succeed
and also the business that is carrying out the agile project succeed too. When
implementing agile the time to get it up and running within the project can
vary from the length of the project and also the size of the project and if agile
team members are open to the concept and ways of agile. When agile is being
applied to a project the project manager has to take into account the
complexity of the project and also the flexibility of the team members because
for agile to be successful the team members need to understand the principles
of agile and implement them into their various parts of the project to allow
agile to be a success in the project and also in the business. The project
manager will have to get his team to trust that agile is in place to help the
project succeed and also help the team succeed in fulfilling the customers’ requirements
and delivering them a satisfactory product. (version one, 2017)

 

 

 

 

 

2.2Agile Background: Expand more and explain more in own words

According to (lichpinseo, 2017)Many of the Agile ideas surfaced in the
1970s. Studies and reviews were conducted on the Agile Method that explains its
emergence as a reaction against traditional approaches to project development.
The fundamentals of agile methodology development go back as far as six decades
ago.  Researchers worked on the principle
of separating design, implementation and testing with the agile method. The
implementation phase was characterised by generations of systems of codes and
functional sub specifications, so that there were intermediate check points for
validation and verification against the final expected product. Then two
decades later agile evolved as an evolutionary project management and became one
of the key incremental and iterative developments in the practice. Scholars approached
complex systems by using reductionism, breaking down the project into small
units, each of these units one having a small well defined goal or prototype,
totalling to larger goal and every prototype having sufficient provision for
retreat. With the development and evolution of agile methodology and the
community surrounding it, it has benefitted from conceptual foundations in
other areas such as architecture, Socio technical systems, soft systems
methodology, support structures and transitional organization. The key
characteristics of the agile development methodologies are decision-making
discretion and adaptive understanding. (Saji KMathew, 2015)

2.3Scrum: Expand more on Scrum like scrum roles, scrum master

Figure
2.1 A Rugby Scrum Contains eight players from either side (LAD, 2017)

One of the tools of which most commonly
used in agile is the scrum framework. The scrum framework was originally
created by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka. The frame work wasn’t given
the name scrum until 1991 when Peter DE Grace and Leslie Hulet Stahl and they
gave it the term scrum which is more traditionally as a phrase for a set piece
play in rugby as shown in the figure 2.1 above. This is where a group of eight
players from either side work together to drive forward and succeed in winning
the ball for their team. This shows a similarity to scrum in agile because the
team members of the agile project want to succeed with each other and drive on
and have success with their agile project and deliver their goals to the
customer much like the eight players in rugby want to drive forward and win the
ball in the scrum and provide it to their teammates. The use of scrum is setup
using the scrum guide framework which provides a project manager with a view of
how he should setup his project using scrum and get his project team members to
partake in using scrum in the project and have a successful project using the
agile methodology and the tool scrum. The purpose of the Scrum Guide Scrum is a
framework for developing and sustaining complex products in the projects. The
definition of scrum is that scrum is a framework in which people or project
team members can address complex problems but at the same time they can
creatively and productively deliver the final product and project to the
highest standard and to the customer’s satisfaction. (Ken Schwaber,
2016)

 This definition consists of Scrum’s roles,
events, artifacts, and the rules that bind them together. Ken Schwaber and Jeff
Sutherland developed Scrum the scrum Guide and it is written and provided by
them. Together, they feel that the scrum guide is a productive tool in agile
project management.

Scrum is:

·        
Lightweight

·        
 Simple to
understand

·        
 Difficult
to master 

The Scrum process is a framework
that has been used to manage complex product development since the early 1990s.
Scrum is not a process or a technique for building product. It is a framework
within which project teams can employ various processes and techniques. Scrum
makes clear the relative efficacy of your product management and development
practices so that the project team can be improve.

The Scrum framework consists of
Scrum Teams and their associated roles, events and rules. Each component of the
framework serves a specific purpose and is essential to Scrum’s success and
usage.

 

 

The rules of Scrum bind together
the events, roles of scrum and governing the relationships and interaction
between them. Specific tactics for using the Scrum framework.

The Theory of Scrum is founded on
empirical process control theory, or empiricism. Empiricism asserts that
knowledge comes from experience and making decisions based on what is known.
Scrum employs an iterative, incremental approach to optimize predictability and
control risk factors. (42, 2017)

2.3.1 Scrum Roles

There are three roles in the scrum
as follows:

·        
The product
owner(PO) this person in the project team explains the overall vision of
the product to the agile team members and works in conjunction with them to
produce a product backlog. This role replicates the voice of the customer. This
is a set of priorities which make up the functionality of a product (version one,
2017)The
product owner is the main stakeholder in the project and does not have to be a client. (42, 2017)

·        
The Scrum
Master is the coach of the team. Their main responsibility is to make sure
that the agile project team members are following the methodology correctly and
that if theirs is any roadblocks standing in their way that they are dealt with
accordingly. (42, 2017)

·        
The
Development Team is normally a group of nine members from the agile project
teams and they are self-organising and cross functional. Their objective is to
prioritise tasks and develop the final product before delivery to the customer. (42, 2017)

 

Figure
2.1 Scrum Frame Work & Processes (Geeks, 2017)

2.4 Kanban:

The Kanban system is another tool of the
agile methodology. Kanban is a method that is put in place to manage the
creation of products with an idea of keeping control of the WIP (work which is
only partially completed) which should be kept to a minimal. The Kanban process
also focuses on managing the creation of products with an emphasis on continual
delivery while not overburdening the development team. Kanban is a process
designed to help teams work together more effectively which is similar to the
way scrum is also used as a tool in agile. Kanban is based on three basic
principles these are shown below:

Visualizing the
workflow: The project manger divides up the work into smaller or more manageable
sizes and writes them down and places the tasks in the to do column.

Limit the amount of
work in progress (WIP):   There should be an agreed limit to how much
WIP is taking place, but this is also dependent on factors such as the size of
the project, the size of the teams and the level of difficulties the tasks are.
When the WIP is reduced it helps the process flow smoothly and therefore the
team members do not commit to too much work in turn leading to bottlenecks.

Measuring and
managing the process flow: when a task in the project is finished then
the next thing that the project manager would feel the customer would see as a
milestone or a goal is the next in line to be completed.

Benefits of the Kanban System:

·        
Shorter cycle times can deliver the product faster.

·        
Continuous Flow

·        
When priorities change very frequently, Kanban is
ideal.

·        
Balancing demand against throughput guarantees that
most the customer-centric features are always being worked.

·        
Requires fewer organization / room set-up changes
to get started

·        
Reducing waste and removing activities that don’t
add value to the team/department/organization

·        
Rapid feedback loops improve the chances of more
motivated, empowered and higher-performing team members (version one,
2017)

 

 

Kanban

         

Scrum

No prescribed
roles

Pre-defined roles of Scrum master, Product owner
and team member

Continuous
Delivery

Time boxed sprints

Work is pulled
through the system (single piece flow)

Work is pulled through the system in batches (the
sprint backlog)

Changes can be
made at any time

No changes allowed mid-sprint

Cycle time

Velocity

More appropriate
in operational environments with a high degree of variability in priority

More appropriate in situations where work can be
prioritized in batches that can be left alone

 

Figure
2:
Differences between Kanban & Scrum (version one, 2017)

 

2.5 PMBOK Methodology: Paraphrase more &
explain more in own words

The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK for short) collects set of
processes, best practices, terminologies, and guidelines that are accepted as
standards within the project management industry. The PMBOK guide is documented
within a book, This a guide to the Project
Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), which is compiled and overseen by the
organization Project Management Institute (PMI). The first edition was published
in 1996, and the currently there is a sixth edition was published in 2016. (Project Management Institute, 2017)

The PMBOK officially recognizes 47 typical
project management processes, which can be put into five main process groups,
more commonly known as IPECC:

 

The
47 project management processes can also be organized into ten knowledge areas:

1.   
Project Communication Management: Processes
that disseminate information among team members and external stakeholders,
ensuring that information is exchanged continuously, and more importantly,
understood by all concerned.

2.    Project Cost
Management: Processes regarding budgets, funding, spending allocation, and timing.
Cost management is dependent on activity estimates from time management.

3.    Project Human
Resources Management: Processes involving managing your project team,
like sourcing, hiring, assigning roles, professional development, and fostering
team spirit.

4.    Project
Integration Management: Processes necessary to define, consolidate, and
coordinate all the other processes and project management activities. These
processes are key to setting expectations and keeping communication lines open.

5.    Project
Procurement Management: Processes for planning, budgeting, and purchasing
resources — whether physical or informational — in order to complete work.

6.    Project Quality
Management: Processes that define the success of a project or criteria for
considering the project complete. Quality is managed at every stage of the
project from planning to the continuous performance improvement.

7.    Project Risk
Management: Processes involved with preparing for and managing unexpected risks.

8.    Project
Scope Management: Processes managing the scope or parameters of a
project.
These processes ensure that the scope is well-defined and that all requirements
remain within the scope limits.

9.    Project
Stakeholder Management: Processes involved with identifying who will
be impacted by the project and managing relationships with them, including
strategies for collaborating with stakeholders on project direction and
execution.

10. 
Project Time Management: Processes needed to
ensure the project is completed before the specified deadline (Project
Management Institute, 2017)

 

The PMBOK guide is a book that can
be used by a project manager as a guide to the Project Management Body of
Knowledge the book is currently in its sixth edition and provides guidelines
for managing individual projects and also defines project management related
concepts for a project manager. The PMBOK guide also explains the project
management life cycle and its related processes and goes into detail about the
project life cycle.

The PMBOK guide contains the
globally recognized standard and guide for the project management profession
which can be found in Annex 1. A standard is explained in the PMBOK guide as a
formal document that describes established norms, methods, processes, and
practices. Like in other professions the knowledge that is contained in this
standard has evolved over time from the recognized good practices and beliefs
of project management practitioners who have contributed to the development of
project management body of knowledge over a long period of time.

In the first two sections of the
PMBOK guide provides an introduction to key aspects in the project management
field. In section three it summarizes the Process Groups and also provides an
overview of process interactions from the ten Knowledge Areas and five Process
Groups. In sections four through to thirteen the guide gives an insight to the
project management body of knowledge. This section expands and gives an insight
on information about the standard by describing the inputs and outputs, as well
as tools and techniques used in managing projects. “Annex A1 is the standard
for project management and presents the processes, inputs, and outputs that are
considered to be good practice on most projects most of the time” (Project
Management Institute, 2017)

In the project management section,
it defines several key terms and the relationships between the portfolio
management section, program management section, project management section and
organizational project management section.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.6 Project Management:
Revise this Section too much repetition

 

The term Project management is the application
of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the
project requirements. “Project management is achieved through the appropriate
application and integration of the 47 logically grouped project management
processes, which are categorized into five Process Groups. These five Process
Groups are as follows:         

·        
Initiating          

·        
Planning         

·        
Executing       

·        
Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing. (Project
Management Institute, 2017)

Managing a project typically
includes, but is not limited to:  

·        
Identifying requirements; 

·        
Addressing the various needs, concerns, and
expectations of the stakeholders in planning and executing the project; 

·        
Setting up, maintaining, and carrying out
communications among stakeholders that are active, effective, and collaborative
in nature;

·        
Managing stakeholders towards meeting project
requirements and creating project deliverables;

·        
Balancing the competing project constraints,
which include, but are not limited to: ? Scope, ? Quality, ? Schedule, ?
Budget, ? Resources, and ? Risks. ” (Project Management Institute,
2017)

 

The   characteristics of a project and the
circumstances can have an influence on the constraints that a project
management team needs to focus.

The relationship between these
factors is one that if any one factor changes then at least one other factor is
likely to be affected. An example would be if the schedule for a project is
shortened then often the budget needs to be increased so that the project team
can add additional resources to complete the same amount of work in less time.
If a budget increase is not possible and the scope or expected quality may be
reduced to deliver the project’s end goal in less time within the same budget
amount. Project stakeholders may have differing ideas as to which of the
factors are the most important, creating an even greater challenge. Changing
the project requirements or objectives may create additional risks. The project
team needs to be able to assess the risks and the situation and be able to
balance the demands and also be able to maintain constant communication with
stakeholders in order to deliver a successful project.

As there is potential for change
with the development of the project management plan and this is an iterative
activity and is progressively planned throughout the project’s life cycle.
Progressive planning involves the project team continuously improving and
detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information becomes available.
Progressive planning allows a project management team to define the work and
manage it to a greater level of detail as the project evolves.

 

 

 

Traditional
Project Management

Traditional project management
(TPM) is a rigid system involving deliberate planning and control methods. TPM
breaks up its projects into a workflow known as waterfall which consists of
distinct project life cycle phases with tasks completed one after another. This
requires a lot of upfront planning. Once a step is completed it can be
difficult to go back to a previous step so there is little room for change or
error (Hass, 2007).
This is referred to as the waterfall model and is an inherent concept in
hardware projects in which it is very difficult to make changes as parts are
physical. This is in contrast to software projects where the end product is
will not take up any physical space. A TPM hardware example would be a machine
build project, the product manager needs to determine requirements, designers
need to design the machine using computer aided design (CAD) software and have
the customer sign-off on the design before any machining parts can commence or before
standard components can be ordered. Once the design of the machine has been
finalized and parts have been made is very difficult to start to make changes
again and so the design phase is a critical phase.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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