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F?od security
has been one of the most important concerns of mankind for a long time. Fo?d s?curity has been one of the tremendous burdens putting
pressure on the whole human race for a long time. So in today’s world demand for the safe and
healthy food is increasing due to the continued growth of population. For example,
the population of the earth is expected to be 9.8 billion by 2050 (UN, 2015). Given
the increasing world population, there is a necessity for integrating new
technologies such as nanotechnology in the agri-food sector.

Exploring methods of providing food security has direct
implications for society. For instance, agriculture, vital important part of
economy, is facing many challenges such as climate change and lack of arable
land and water resources (Bhupinder Singh Sekhon, 2014). Therefore, as a student following physics
pathway, finding and investigating ways of integration of nanotechnologies to agriculture
and food industry is of interest and relevance.

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Nanotechnology can revolutionize agri-food sector
in the near future, and its application includes: 1) food quality monitoring
(e.g. the application of nanosensors for identification of diseases); 2) using
nanomaterials in packaging and food safety; 3) Using nanocapsulation in food.
The prediction is that despite consumer skepticism nanotechnology will
transform food industry and agriculture, changing the way food is produced,
packaged, and consumed.  This research
paper will analyze application of nanotechnologies in the stages of agri-food
industry, demonstrating current research and what future impacts these may
have.

   

SECTION2

 

RESEARCH
QUESTIONS

1. WHAT IS
NANOTECHNOLOGY?

2. WHAT ARE
THE REASONS FOR APPLYING NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD INDUSTRY?

3. IN WHAT
AREAS OF FOOD INDUSTRY CAN NANOTECHNOLOGIES BE INTEGRATED IN?

4. WHAT ARE
THE RISKS?

5. IT IS
FEASIBLE?

 

OUTLINE

I.                   
CURRENT
SITUATION IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD INDUSTRY

1.1. Growing population

1.2. Lack of resources

II.                 
INTRODUCTION
TO NANOTECHNOLOGY (Lynn Frewer, 2011)

2.1. Nanotechnology in food market

2.2. Nanotechnology in
agriculture

III.               
FIELDS
OF APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE

3.1. AGRICULTURE (Suresh Neethirajan, 2010)

3.1.1.       
Precision
Farming

3.1.2.       
Smart
Delivery System

3.1.3.       
Other
Applications of Nanotechnology

3.2. FOOD INDUSTRY (Tiju Joseph and Mark Morrison, 2006)

3.2.1.       
Packaging
and Food security

3.2.2.       
Food
Processing

IV.               
ACCOSIATED
RISKS (Michael
Siegrist, 2008)

4.1.  Toxicology

4.2.  Public acceptance

V.                 
FUTURE
RESEARCH NEEDS (Lav R. Khot a, Sindhuja Sankaran, 2012)

VI.               
CONCLUSION

 

SECTION3

 

ANNOTATED
SOURCES

Siegrist, Michael, Nathalie Stampfli, Hans Kastenholz,
and Carmen Keller. “Perceived risks and perceived benefits of different
nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.” Appetite 51, no. 2 (2008): 283-90.
doi:10.1016/j.appet.2008.02.020.

This article was printed in an international
peer reviewed research journal, specializing
in social and psychological influences on the selection and intake of foods and
drinks, and was written
by reliable authors in this sphere. The main author, Siegrist Michael has
worked as a Professor of Consumer Behavior at Swiss
Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland
since 2007 which proves that he is likely to be a reliable author. Although the
article was published in 2008 content is reasonably current. The article is
based on survey examining 19 nanotechnology applications by 339 participants. After researchers’ thorough study,
results of research show that the importance of naturalness and trust in food
products were significant factors influencing consumers’ attitude towards using
nanotechnologies in food industry. The only limitation is that it was
published 10 years ago, however, its detailed investigation and easily
accessible language make it useful source in my research paper. The content of
the article will be used in my research paper to support section about
annotated risks of nanotechnologies, in particular the paragraph about
consumers’ choice. The article is supported by an extensive reference list and
has subsequently been cited in 130 other works, showing its importance in the
field of nanotechnology.

 

 

 

Neethirajan, Suresh, and Digvir S. Jayas. “Nanotechnology
for the Food and Bioprocessing Industries.” Food and Bioprocess Technology 4, no. 1 (2010): 39-47.
doi:10.1007/s11947-010-0328-2.

 

This is a peer-reviewed journal article published by Springer who is
well-known academic publisher. The lead author is Dr Suresh Neethirajan, who received a PhD from the
University of Manitoba, Canada (2009). He currently holds the position of an
Assistant Professor in the Department of Biological and Biomedical Engineering
at the University of Guelph, Canada and has years of experience in the field of
Bio-nanotechnology and Nanotechnology for agriculture and published over 100
articles. The lead author is well-known in his field as his articles have been
cited by 1678 people, which suggests he is likely to be a reliable researcher.
There appears to be no intentional bias. In this article, Dr Neethirajan reviews potential of
nanotechnologies, providing overview of current and future application of nanotechnology
in food industry, including food quality monitoring, food packaging, and
nanoencapsulation system. The authors’ findings suggest that nanotechnology
will lead to improved food quality and safety, but its feasibility is likely to
be dependent on public acceptance and consumers’ perception. The content of
this article will be used to support the general background information in my
research of applying nanotechnology in food industry.

 

Frewer, Lynn, Willem
Norde, Arnout Fischer, and Frans Kampers. Nanotechnology in the agri-food sector: implications for the future.
Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2011.

This book reports on applications of nanotechnology to agri-food sector
and was published by Willey-VCH who is well-known German academic publisher
founded in 1921. The main author is Lynn Frewer, who obtained MSc in Ergonomics
at University College London, UK (1983) and PhD in
Applied Psychology at University of Leeds (1987). At the present time she works
as a Professor of Food and Society at the Newcastle University (from January
2011). Lynn has academic interests in all areas of food and society and
has published many articles in this field. According to the number of citations
she appears to be quite well-known and a reliable researcher. There is likely
to be no bias. The book, in contrast to previous source, provides with detailed
summary information about applications of nanotechnologies in agri-food sector accounting
both advantages and disadvantages of using them such as toxicity regards to
human health and environment. Moreover, authors determined main factors that
influence on further development of the nanotechnology. It would be the most
useful for the main part of my research project because it gives better
understanding of nanotechnologies’ usage and application. 

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