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Assignment Topic         Wireless standards 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11nName:Mudabbar Hussain Bhatti   Roll Number:15091519-055                                                        Assignment # 04Submitted to: Mr. M Bilal Ahmad JanjooaFaculty of Computer Science & Information Technology University of GujratWhat is wireless standard? Wireless standards 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11nIntroduction:                          Wireless technology helps to explain networking by enabling multiple computer users to share resources in a business or home at the time without additional wiring. These resources may include a broadband Internet connection, network printers, data files, and streaming audio and video. This type of resource sharing become more powerful as computer users change their habits from using single, stand-alone computers to working on networks with multiple users, each with potentially different operating systems(OS) and varying peripheral hardware. U.S. Robotics wireless networking products offer different types of solutions to continuous integrate computer, peripheral devices, and data. Wireless networking enables the same capabilities and comparable speeds of a wired 10BASE-T network without the difficulties associated with laying wire, drilling into walls, or stringing Ethernet cables throughout an office building or home. Users can also create a wireless network out of an existing wired network and extend wirelessly the reach of the Internet throughout the home on multiple computers.it is more convenient for everybody to get online.There are following reasons to choose wireless networking over traditional wired networks• Roaming capability is desired; e.g., maintaining connectivity inside a home or business• Network access desire outdoor; e.g. outside office buildingIEEE Wireless Networking SpecificationsIn1999 the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) released the 802.11 for WLAN. 802.11 is the initial specification. It used the 2.4 GHz frequency and it supports a maximum data rate of 1 to 2 Mbps. In late 1999 two new addenda was released. In the 2.4 GHz range the specification of 802.11b increased the performance to 11 Mbps while the 802.11a specification utilized the 5 GHz range and support up to 54 Mbps.Unfortunately, the two new specifications were opposite because they use different frequencies. So it means that 802.11a (NICs) and access point not connect with 802.11b NICs and access point. This opposite forced the creation of the new standard known as 802.11g. 802.11g support up to 54 Mbps and is interoperable with 802.11b product on the market today. The mission is that 802.11g specification is currently in development and products will not be available until a later date.802.11 SpecificationsIEEE developed the 802.11 specifications specifically for WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks ). It includes four subsets of Ethernet-based protocol standards: 802.11, 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g.802.11:In the IEEE (the institute of electrical and electronics engineering)created the first WLAN.802.11 operates in the 2.4 GHz range and is the original specification of the 802.11 IEEE standard. This specification delivers 1 to 2 Mbps using a technology PSK (known as phase-shift keying) modulation. This specification was no longer use and had largely been replaced by other forms of the 802.11 standard.802.11b:In July 1999 the institute of electrical and electronics engineering (IEEE) expand the original 802.11 standard, creating the 802.11b specification. It supported bandwidth up to 11 Mbps, comparable to traditional Ethernet.It used the same unregulated radio signaling frequency (2.4 GHz) like the original 802.11 standard. To lower their production costs many Vendors often prefer to use these frequencies. Being unregulated, it gear can incur interference from microwave ovens, cordless phones, and other appliances using the same 2.4 GHz range. However, by applying 802.11b gear a distance from other appliances, interference can easily be avoided.• Merits of 802.11b Lowest cost; the range of signals is good and not easily obstructed• Demerits of 802.11b  Maximum speed slowest; home appliances may interfere on the unregulated frequency band.802.11a :IEEE created a second extension to the original 802.11 standard called 802.11a while 802.11b standard was in development. 802.11a operates within 5 – 6 GHz with data rates commonly in the 6 Mbps, 12 Mbps or 24 Mbps range. It uses the OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) standard, data transfer ration can be as high as 54 Mbps. providing more resistance to radio frequency interference, OFDM breaks up the fast serial information signals into several slower sub-signals that were transferred at the same time via different frequencies, providing more resistance to radio frequency interference. It is also known as Wi-Fi5. It is regionally deployed but 802.11b global standard.• merits of 802.11a :Has fast maximum speed; regulate the frequencies and prevent signal interference from other devices.• demerits of 802.11a:Has highest cost; it is the shorter range signal that is more easily obstructed.802.11g:A newer standard emerged in 2002 and 2003 called 802.11g and WLAN products supporting on the market. 802.11g attempt is better to compare the both 802.11a and 802.11b.Up to 54 Mbps of the bandwidth is supported by 802.11g.it uses the frequency of 2.4 GHz for higher range. This standard is backward compatible with 802.11b.so it means that 802.11g access points will work with 802.11b wireless network adapter and vice versa.• merits of 802.11g asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my findIt has fast maximum speed and its signal range is good.it is not easily obstructed.• demerits of 802.11g It costs more than 802.11b; devices may interfere on the USF (unregulated signal frequency).802.11n: asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find802.11n also sometimes known as “wireless N”.it was designed to improve on 802.11g in the amount of bandwidth supported by utilizing multiple wireless signals and antennas (called MIMO technology) instead of one.In 2009 industry standards groups ratified 802.11n with specifications providing for up to 300Mbps of network bandwidth. 802.11n, also offers somewhat better range over earlier Wi-Fi standards due to its increased signal intensity, and it is backward-compatible with 802.11b/g gear.• merits of 802.11n asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my findIt has the fastest maximum speed and best signal range.it is more resistant to signal interference from outside sources.• demerits of 802.11n  asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my findThis standard is not yet finalized.it costs more than 802.11g, the use of multiple signals can greatly interfere with nearby 802.11b/g based networks.asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my findasd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my findComparisons of 802.11 a, b, g and n wireless standards: asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my findasd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be sha g kia hal hy whor do my find asd dsa ali walislad dje fo low be Reference: https://kl2217.wordpress.com/2009/07/31/ieee-802-11-standards-comparison/https://www.lifewire.com/wireless-standards-802-11a-802-11b-g-n-and-802-11ac-816553http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/9781118098837

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