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Aik Ho Tan          SID: 3032 107 131Music 26ACProfessor: Tamara Roberts GSI: Andrew SnyderQuestion 1The musical genre of “Addictive” is hip hop. It has a stable rhythm and a slow tempo with underlying beats played by drums. This song also has a dense texture as “call and response” is very distinct and different voices tend to overlap with the lead voice. The sample from “Thoda Resham Lagta Hai” is incorporated in “Addictive” in such a way that it is the background vocals that act to support the main singer, Truth Hurts. The sample also contributes to most of the sonic components of “Addictive”. Furthermore, the whole musical video features belly dance by both the singer and performers. By not crediting the third world artists and sampling the Hindi-song without seeking permission, I believe this is black appropriation of Indian images and music. First of all, as the producer of “Addictive”, DJ Quik does not seek the permission to sample the instrumental track of the Hindi-song, “Thoda Resham Lagta Hai”. He lifts four minutes of the original recording by an Indian artist called Lata Mangeshkar. DJ Quik and other artists of “Addictive” such as Dr. Dre, Truth Hurts, and Rakim then superimpose their own lyrics and drum track over the beat. No only does DJ Quik not not seek the permission, but he is also not the artist directly working for this Hindi musical piece. As an outsider, he does not know the content and meaning of this Hindi-song. This irresponsible action undoubtedly shows that the American artists and label simply take it for granted that Hindi music can be used by them at will, and they do not need to credit and pay for.Secondly, the objectionable content of “Addictive” most likely misrepresents and defames the Indian artist. The vulgar and lewd lyrics of “Addictive,” in which Truth sings the lines “He makes me scream” and “I like it rough,” are most probably offensive to some Indian’s religious and cultural sensibilities. As an iconic voice to the hollywood genre, the Indian artist’s image and character are impacted negatively and misrepresented with her association of the song “Addictive”. To rectify the situation, the songwriter and producers of “Addictive” should have provided appropriate musical credit and recognition to the Indian artists and producers. Besides, they should have officially obtained the permission and considered a collaboration with the Indian artists to produce a unique music genre that has a larger international market with the essence of two different cultures. In my opinion, copyright infringement case is the best way to address the questions of appropriation. Not only does it deter artists from copying others’ work without giving proper credit, but it also encourages artists to seek permission and collaboration amongst themselves to promote creativity. As a conclusion, my verdict is Lahiri and Saregama have the rights to receive credits for the sample of “Thoda Resham Lagta Hai” and claim for remuneration. This issue is neither a cultural sharing nor collaboration, but black appropriation of Indian images and music. The American artists and label fail to credit the Indian artists, and they sample the Hindi-song without seeking permission. In addition, the objectionable content of “Addictive” undeniably defames and misrepresents the Indian artist. Question 3According to UNESCO.org, migration is the “crossing of the boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum period of time. It includes the movement of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people as well as economic migrants.” Besides, internal migration refers to the movement from one place to another within the country. On the other hand, international migration is a territorial relocation of people between the countries. Throughout the U.S. musical history, I propose the Great Migration, which occurred between 1916 and 1970 as an important musical influence especially on blues and jazz. The Great Migration was the relocation of around six million African-Americans out of the rural Southern U.S. to the urban West, Midwest, and Northeast. As a consequence, African-American voters become a significant force in the politics. In the context of social impacts, the large scale of migration exacerbates existing social tensions in the country. However, migrants help transform the American society and culture by adding in the values of diversity.Having escaped from the racism of the northern and southern states, African-Americans are then inspired by various forms of creativity. During the 1920s and 1930s, the Harlem Renaissance, which is resulted in the Great Migration played a major influence on blues music.To escape racial discrimination, influential blues singers namely Chester Burnett and Muddy Waters migrated from Mississippi to Chicago. As a result, Mississippi blues music style greatly impacts the Chicago blues. This blues music style can be distinguished by the use of harmonica, bass, electric guitar, drums, and a rhythm section. Furthermore, blues shifts from being a rural country music to being played in clubs and modern places. As the Great Migration continues to unfold, the blues tempos and the song lyrics become vibrant and upbeat as African-Americans attain freedom and inspiration in northern cities.In addition, the Great Migration has significantly impacted jazz music. Since the migration leads to employment and prosperity for African-Americans, more people can afford to buy records and enjoy music. Subsequently, this has substantially intensified the growth and expansion of jazz music across the American society. Besides, more jazz musicians have the opportunity to receive a better education and this leads to an improvement and growth in their musical talents. Migration undoubtedly paves the way for the development and creation of music, and new cultures and forms of jazz music have emerged. As a conclusion, the Great Migration is an important historical moment when migration has been impactful. It has also been an important influence throughout U.S. musical history, especially on blues and jazz. As Martin Luther King said, “Jazz speaks for life. The blues tell the story of life’s difficulties — and, if you think for a moment, you realize that they take the hardest realities of life and put them into music, only to come out with some new hope or sense of triumph. This is triumphant music.” These musical genres and development undoubtedly serve as support for African-Americans. Through blues and jazz, these African-American musical styles have then become a fundamental part of American popular music. Question 6 During the late 1940s and early 1950s, rock and roll is a popular music genre that originates in the United States. It evolves from African-American musical styles namely jazz, blues, gospel, rhythm, as well as country music. The saxophone or piano is seen to be the main instrument in the earliest rock and roll style. However, guitar gradually becomes the lead instrument in the late 1950s. I believe the inclusion of rock and roll in this course would be a significant addition because of its powerful impacts across the politics, social and lifestyle on American society. Beyond merely a musical style, rock and roll has been influenced by various types of musical styles and subsequently, it has paved the way for self-expression, originality, and free thought. Rock and roll allows artists to express their thoughts on political issues and to influence the government. Rock and roll artists are also able to produce music that would essentially unify people from different backgrounds, religions,  races, and socio-economic statuses through constant interaction in the community.Besides that, it would be valuable to include rock and roll as one of the genres in the “protest, politics, and cultural revival” materials of this class because it emerges at the beginning of the civil rights movement. Not only does rock and roll most probably pave the way for desegregation, but it also helps both white American and African-American teenagers to identify themselves. Rock and roll also establishes a new form of music that encourages racial collaboration and shared experience. In addition, rock and roll breaks the boundaries by expressing sentiments that people are actually feeling but they do not openly discuss about. In the early rock and roll songs, they deal with topics such as dating and fashion. However, other themes such as sex that is generally considered taboo begins to emerge in rock and roll music. Most of the rock and roll lyrics narrate incidents that listeners could most probably relate to. One of the most famous and influential artists from the rock and roll genre is Elvis Presley, who is also known as “The King of Rock and Roll”. His music is deeply influenced by African- American blues and Christian gospel. He has an remarkable cultural impact on the American society as his dance moves, clothing, and recordings are regarded as representations of rock and roll. Elvis is one of the few rock and roll artists who is still acknowledged and respected by the American society today. Some of the audience believe that Elvis never died and they believe that if it is not for artist like Elvis that the social scene between whites and blacks would never have consolidated. As a conclusion, the inclusion of rock and roll in this course would be a valuable addition because of its powerful impacts on the American society. Besides paving the way for self-expression, originality, and free thought, it is also considered as the herald of desegregation. Furthermore, rock and roll breaks the boundaries by expressing sentiments that people are actually feeling but they do not openly discuss about. Most important, it has produced influential artists such as Elvis Presley who has a remarkable cultural impact on the American society and is still respected by the American society today.

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